Boar soil disturbance and foraging have been shown to facilitate invasive plants. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. A light coloured subspecies with black legs which, though varied in size, is generally quite large, the lacrimal bones and facial region of the skull are shorter than those of, The largest subspecies, it has usually dark hair and a white band extending from the corners of the mouth to the ears. Forests made up entirely of oak groves and beeches are used only during the fruit-bearing season.  The earliest fossil finds of the species come from both Europe and Asia, and date back to the Early Pleistocene. The term boar is also used to designate the male of the domestic pig, guinea pig, and various other mammals. A boar hide can measure 300 dm2 (4,700 sq in) and can yield 350–1,000 grams (12–35 oz) of bristle and 400 grams (14 oz) of underwool.  The wild boar can consume numerous genera of poisonous plants without ill effect, including Aconitum, Anemone, Calla, Caltha, Ferula and Pteridium. There is another significant population in Dumfries and Galloway. Neolithic hunter gatherers depicted reliefs of ferocious wild boars on their temple pillars at Göbekli Tepe some 11,600 years ago.
The term wild boar, or wild pig, is sometimes used to refer to any wild member of the Sus genus.
 The wild boar has a long history of association with humans, having been the ancestor of most domestic pig breeds and a big-game animal for millennia. , Humans have been hunting boar for millennia, the earliest artistic depictions of such activities dating back to the Upper Paleolithic. Due to concerns about disease, it was shot and incinerated.  The piglets do not leave the lair for their first week of life. Wild boar live in a wide range of habitats, all of which usually include a water source and thick brush for protection from predators. In modern times, tiger numbers are too low to have a limiting effect on boar populations. And finally, these animals are exposed to different contagious diseases, resulting in high numbers of mortality.
In order to survive in a given area, wild boars require a habitat fulfilling three conditions: heavily brushed areas providing shelter from predators, water for drinking and bathing purposes and an absence of regu…  Boars of the vittatus subspecies in Ujung Kulon National Park in Java differ from most other populations by their primarily frugivorous diet, which consists of 50 different fruit species, especially figs, thus making them important seed dispersers. , A revival of boar populations began in the middle of the 20th century.
, Starting in the mid-1980s, several boars purchased from the San Diego Zoo and Tierpark Berlin were released into the United States.  Acorns and beechnuts are invariably its most important food items in temperate zones, as they are rich in the carbohydrates necessary for the buildup of fat reserves needed to survive lean periods.
 The grey wolf is the wild boar's main predator in most of its natural range except in the Far East and the Lesser Sunda Islands, where it is replaced by the tiger and Komodo dragon respectively. Males possess noticeably longer and curved tusks as well as an additional tusk on the upper lip, with which they sharpen tusks on the lower lip. The winning male will mate with females in a sounder. 'Sow', the traditional name for a female, again comes from Old English and Germanic; it stems from Proto-Indo-European, and is related to the Latin: sus and Greek hus, and more closely to the New High German Sau.
The natural habitat of this species covers parts of Europe and Asia.  The gestation period varies according to the age of the expecting mother.
Young animals are vulnerable to helminths like Metastrongylus, which are consumed by boars through earthworms and cause death by parasitising the lungs. Sows attain sexual maturity at the age of one year, with males attaining it a year later.  In mountainous regions, it can even occupy alpine zones, occurring up to 1,900 m (6,200 ft) in the Carpathians, 2,600 m (8,500 ft) in the Caucasus and up to 3,600–4,000 m (11,800–13,100 ft) in the mountains in Central Asia and Kazakhstan. In Europe's Mediterranean regions, males may reach average weights as low as 50 kg (110 lb) and females 45 kg (99 lb), with shoulder heights of 63–65 cm (25–26 in). Because their short legs, these animals move through snow with great difficulty. The trunk is short and robust, while the hindquarters are comparatively underdeveloped. They may ruin the habitats of other animals and plants in the area.
The live in scrublands, grasslands, wetlands, rain forests, temperate forests, and savannas. This association likely arose from aspects of the boar's actual nature.
The neonatal coat fades after three months, with adult colouration being attained at eight months. In the eastern Baraba steppe (near Novosibirsk) the boundary turned steep south, encircled the Altai Mountains and went again eastward including the Tannu-Ola Mountains and Lake Baikal. Wild boar used its snout when digging out roots and bulbs.
In Western and Central Europe, the largest males weigh 200 kg (440 lb) and females 120 kg (260 lb). Prior to the 20th century, boar populations had declined in numerous areas, with British populations probably becoming extinct during the 13th century. This animal spends as much as 12 hours per day sleeping in a nest, constructed out of leaves. They possess sharp tusks, and, although they are normally unaggressive, they can be dangerous.  During the mid-20th century, 7,000–8,000 boars were caught in the Caucasus, 6,000–7,000 in Kazakhstan and about 5,000 in Central Asia during the Soviet period, primarily through the use of dogs and beats.
 In Sikhote Alin, a tiger can kill 30–34 boars a year. A typical Roman boar hunting tactic involved surrounding a given area with large nets, then flushing the boar with dogs and immobilizing it with smaller nets. Wild boars are commonly found and widespread throughout Eurasia.
The boar and pig were held in particularly high esteem by the Celts, who considered them to be their most important sacred animal.
In Northeastern Asia, large males can reach brown bear-like sizes, weighing 270 kg (600 lb) and measuring 110–118 cm (43–46 in) in shoulder height. Thirteen wild boars from Germany were purchased by Austin Corbin from Carl Hagenbeck and released into a 9,500-hectare (23,000-acre) game preserve in Sullivan County. , The boar as a warrior also appears in Scandinavian, Germanic and Anglo-Saxon culture, with its image having been frequently engraved on helmets, shields and swords. In the Baltic regions, heavy snowfall can allow wolves to eliminate boars from an area almost completely. In some parts of Europe and India it is still hunted with dogs, but the spear has mostly been replaced with the gun.  The failure to meet cull targets was confirmed in February 2011. , Boars of all ages were once the primary prey of tigers in Transcaucasia, Kazakhstan, Middle Asia and the Far East up until the late 19th century. Wild boars are tend to affect negatively on the ecosystems. , In recent centuries, the range of wild boar has changed dramatically, largely due to hunting by humans and more recently because of captive wild boar escaping into the wild. Additionally, the Wild boar has been known to hunt on livestock such as small calves or lambs. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Wild boar is capable of adapting and living in a wide range of environments. A decade later, more specimens from farms in Canada and Białowieża Forest were let loose. "Commercial Growth and Environmental Change in Early Modern Japan: Hachinohe's Wild Boar Famine,", "Genetic Resources, Genome Mapping and Evolutionary Genomics of the Pig (, Natural history of the Mammalia of India and Ceylon, Hallan Çemi, pig husbandry, and post-Pleistocene adaptations along the Taurus-Zagros Arc (Turkey), "Pre-Neolithic wild boar management and introduction to Cyprus more than 11,400 years ago", "The origin of the domestic pig: independent domestication and subsequent introgression", BBC News, "Pig DNA reveals farming history", "Ancient DNA, pig domestication, and the spread of the Neolithic into Europe", "Penile Injuries in Wild and Domestic Pigs", "Alderney wild boar that swam from France shot over disease fear", "Twelve years of repeated wild hog activity promotes population maintenance of an invasive clonal plant in a coastal dune ecosystem", A wild boar hunting: predation on a bonnet macaque by a wild boar in the Bandipur National Park, southern India, "Diet and habitat use of the endangered Persian leopard (, "Food habits of Amur tigers in the Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik and the Russian Far East, and implications for conservation", "Food habits and prey selection of tiger and leopard in Mudumalai tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India", Jääkauden jälkeläiset – Suomen nisäkkäiden varhainen historia, "The contemporary land mammals of Egypt (including Sinai)", Government supports local communities to manage wild boar, "Forest of Dean rangers battle to meet boar cull target", "BBC Wales – Nature – Wildlife – Wild boar", "How the UK's zoophobic legacy turned on wild boar", "Eurasian Boar - NYS Dept.
This omnivorous mammal consumes nearly any type of food that it's able to accommodate in its mouth.  The canine teeth are also much more prominent in males and grow throughout life. The communication system of these animals includes vocalizations such as growls, which express aggression. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). , Wild boar can thrive in captivity, though piglets grow slowly and poorly without their mothers. Foot-and-mouth disease can also take on epidemic proportions in boar populations. Two further introductions were made from the original stocking, with several escapes taking place due to breaches in the game preserve's fencing.
The ICUN classifies this species as "Least Concern". [a], The breeding period in most areas lasts from November to January, though most mating only lasts a month and a half.  Wolves are particularly threatening during the winter, when deep snow impedes the boars' movements.
Once a sounder has been located, the male drives off all young animals and persistently chases the sows.  Wild boar in southern regions are frequently infested with ticks (Dermacentor, Rhipicephalus, and Hyalomma) and hog lice.  Boars were frequently depicted on Greek funerary monuments alongside lions, representing gallant losers who have finally met their match, as opposed to victorious hunters as lions are. Elmira Sharbafi, Mohammad S. Farhadinia, Hamid R. Rezaie, Alex Richard Braczkowski. As true wild boars became extinct in Great Britain before the development of Modern English, the same terms are often used for both true wild boar and pigs, especially large or semi-wild ones.
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